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(Die Seite wurde neu angelegt: „pharma asia" style="max-width:420px;float:left;padding:10px 10px 10px 0px;border:0px;">Not lá day goes by when our email inboxes do not fill with advertisemen…“)
 
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pharma asia" style="max-width:420px;float:left;padding:10px 10px 10px 0px;border:0px;">Not lá day goes by when our email inboxes do not fill with advertisements for prescription drugs.

Many of these emails promise to deliver drugs of all classes by overnight courier without em prescription. While there are legitimate disponível pharmacies, and the practice of telemedicine or relativo à Internet-medicine is gaining acceptance, this change in the way medicine is being practiced is rocking the foundations of the medical establishment.

Being able to consult essa doctor on, and obtain prescription drugs delivered to your doorstep by UPS has broad social and legal implications. The World wide web facilitates making drugs available to those who may not be able to afford to pay US prices, are embarrassed to see ao preço de doctor face-to-face, or are suffering from pain, the treatment of which puts most doctors in direct conflict with the 'war em conexão drugs' but online the other hand there is the question whether these pharmacies make drugs available to recreational drug users without the oversight of caso licensed medical practitioner.

The Need for Alternatives
Medical care in the US has reached em point where it is expensive and impersonal which has caused the consumer to become generally unsatisfied with the medical establishment as caso whole. Examples include the huge differences between the cost of drugs in the US and Canada, long wait times in US pharmacies, and poor service in general.

In the event you loved this informative article and you wish to receive much more information regarding buy Bayer steroids assure visit our own web-page. Perhaps realizing this, US customs appears to tolerate the millions of Americans that visit Canada every year to buy their medications, as for the most part, these 'drug buyers' are elderly American's that can't afford the high cost of filling their prescriptions in the US.

Rather than to travel to Canada or Mexico millions of Americans are now turning to the Rede de computadores interligados for both their medical needs. Telemedicine (or ciber medicine) provides consumers with the ability to both consult with com destino a doctor em linha and order drugs over the Rede mundial de computadores at discounted prices.

This has resulted in consumers turning to conectado pharmacies for their medical needs, and in privado pharmacies with em relationships with a physician, which allow the consumer to completely bypass the traditional brick and mortar pharmacies, with the added benefit of having their physician act as an intermediary between the consumer and the pharmacy.

According to Johnson (2005) this is as com destino a result of consumers becoming very dissatisfied when it comes to dealing with both brick and mortar pharmacies and medical practitioners. As Johnson, notes, "Consumers are more likely to know the name of their hairdresser than their pharmacist." When Johnson (2005) rated the various professions within the health care system, he found that pharmacists had the lowest interaction with their patients than did any other group.

Today, as e result of this "consumers are buying 25.5 percent of their prescriptions disponível, opposed to 13.5 percent of which are picked up at se brick and mortar pharmacy" (Johnson 2005).
Drugs and Society
What has brought so much attention to em rede pharmacies is that it is possible to obtain just about any drug without lá prescription conectado. Many of these prescriptions are for legitimate purposes purchased through an acessível pharmacy because the buyer is too embarrassed to visit the doctor or for other reasons including the unavailability of FDA approved drugs to the consumer.

These drugs may include steroids that due to their misuse and being classed as no sentido de classed e category three drugs, are seldom prescribed by physicians. These drugs have e useful purpose to those suffering from any wasting disease such as AIDS, they also play autor role in ant-aging (FDA, 2004).

The Doctor Patient Relationship
Today ao preço de visit to essa doctor is generally brief, much of the triage it is done by se nurse or autor nurse practitioner with the doctor only dropping in for por few minutes, if at all. In many cases the patient is seen by para nurse practitioner. One of the arguments against telemedicine or perhaps se better term is relativo a comunicação em rede-medicine, is that the doctor does not have autor physical relationship with the patients and thus is in em cima de position to make se diagnosis, and thus can not legally prescribe drugs.

Ironically when one compares the work up that one has to go through to consult with an acessível physicians and compares this to e face-to-face visit with por brick and mortar doctor, one finds that the em linha physician, in many cases, has em direção a better understanding of the patient's medical condition than does the doctor who meets face-to-face with the patient.

In most cases before an acessível com destino a doctor prescribes any type of medication they insist on-line com destino a full blood workup they may also require that one has additional tests performed, for example.
The AMA, the federal government, and various states claim, however, that it is illegal for ao preço de doctor to prescribe drugs without lá valid doctor-patient relationship. While there are sobre laws at present that outlaw na Internet pharmacies, various states have enacted legislation, or are in the process of enacting legislation to prohibit em direção a doctor from prescribing drugs to e patient that they have not seen face to face.

Some states also require that the doctor that prescribes the drugs be licensed in their state. This alone could hamper the development of relativo a tecnologias avançadas-medicine. According to William Hubbard (2004), FDA associate commissioner "The Food and Drug Administration says it is giving states first crack at lítico action, though it will step in when states do not act" (FDA, 2004).

Rede Pharmacies
The reason that email boxes around the country fill up with offers to supply drugs of all kinds, at reduced prices, without prescriptions, and more is because people buy them as the billions of dollars the drug companies are making each year attest to.
The Rede de computadores interligados has become the drug store of choice for many.
Categories of Web Pharmacies

Rede de computadores interligados pharmacies are generally acknowledged to be comprised of the following five categories:
Internet pharmacies can be divided up into five different categories, as follows:
Licensed em rede pharmacies with caso em o medical affiliation.
Licensed em linha pharmacies with e medical affiliation
No record disponível pharmacies (NRP)
International em rede pharmacies (IOP)

Licensed compounding pharmacies
The licensed online pharmacies with por junto de medical affiliation are of course Drugstore.com, CVV, and others. They all require para prescription from essa licensed doctor that the patient has a doctor patient relationship with. The prescription can be called in by the doctor.

The licensed na Internet pharmacies with ao preço de medical affiliation often depend na Internet lá broker. The broker collects your medical information, and then assigns your case to one of their networked physicians. Many of these networked physicians are willing to prescribe pain killers as they believe that it is only through the use of these drugs that some people can live em harmonious life.


A Government Accountability Office (GAO) Committee conectado aging held in June 2004 found that "Unlicensed international pharmacies do not require na direção de prescription, and are generally located off shore." Dentro de prescription pharmacies can be found all over the world. Many of these sites have come under controversy as in some cases all it takes to have that prescription delivered to you by next day air, is to fill out no sentido de questionnaire em conexão.

A study conducted by Henkle in 2002 to ascertain how easy it would be to obtain drugs over the Net found that "37 of the 46" pharmacy required a prescription from em licensed doctor. The emphasis was em rede the prescription and not em conexão the doctor. Henkle (2002) in fact notes that some sites offered to recommend a doctor." Henkle (2002) was able to obtain prescription drugs from nine sites outside the US during the study, without a prescription.

Disponível pharmacies with caso doctor affiliation
There are essa number of em conexão pharmacies, with autor medical affiliation is that take great pain to differentiate themselves form unlicensed overseas pharmacies. These pharmacies, stress that they are "American based companies that provides consumer's easy access to FDA approved conectado prescriptions over the World wide web and are quick to point out that "An em conexão consultation can be just as relevant as an in-person consultation." It is interesting to note that many of these on pharmacies also point out that "While they are committed to making access to online prescriptions easier, they believe that the World wide web can not replace the importance of regular doctor visits to fully evaluate your health and any medical conditions." Many of these conectado pharmacy sites also makes ao preço de wealth of drug information available online its www página da Internet that enables the consumer to educate themselves conectado drugs that may have been prescribed.

The Internet has for all intensive purposes is quickly replacing the brick and mortar embrião physician as caso patient's primary health care provider.
A sales pitch, of course, or is it? Most of the legitimate on pharmacies ensure that they comply with state and federalista regulation. The doctors are licensed in all 50 states and their pharmacies are too. These legitimate Internet pharmacies cater to those that are looking for autor better price; for some it comes down to making the choice of eating cat food disponível crackers in order to afford their medications because of the high US drug prices.

In other cases patients resort to relativo a computadores-medicine to avoid the embarrassment of having to deal with se physician or pharmacy that may be judgmental. Many of these em rede pharmacies will arrange a consult with ao preço de licensed, medical doctor over the phone and will then fill the prescription accordingly.

According to Henkel (2000) "More and more consumers are using the World wide web for health reasons" and references autor study carried out by para market research firm Cibernética Dialogue Inc., "that found that "health concerns are the sixth most common reason people go online" (Henkel 2000).

For many people caso trip to the pharmacy is an ordeal. In some cases the lugar pharmacy may also be located in the closest town which may mean na direção de long drive if one lives in lá rústico community. Online pharmacies provide a means through which their prescriptions can be delivered conveniently and quickly. Being em rede also allows the consumer to shop for the best prices, an important factor if one is living em linha ao preço de pension.

The Rede mundial de computadores has also created para more aware user. It is not unusual for em consumer to research drugs em linha the Internet. Lá consumer may have seen no sentido de tevê or magazine advertisement advertising na direção de new drug. Ultimately, the Internet also provides the consumer the opportunity to enter into e doctor patient relationship that may in fact be more legitimate than the doctor who makes lá physical appearance. Further information em conexão doctors that practice telemedicine can be found at: site

It is interesting to note, as discussed previously, that consumers are becoming dissatisfied with the care and treatment they receive from both brick and mortar physicians and pharmacies. Zanf (2001), references e study by Lang and Fullerton that "Identified four factors related to outpatient pharmacy services: professional communication, physical and emotional comfort, demographics, and location and convenience." All of which are contributing factors as to why more and more consumers are resorting to relativo à Internet-medicine.

The Dark Side
There is also ao preço de dark side to the Web pharmacy, as previously discussed, mensagem eletrônica indesejada email touting the availability of any prescription drug one could want, without com destino a prescription, is something everyone is familiar with has reached epidemic proportions.
From Ambien, and of course Viagra to more powerful drugs such as Oxycontin, you can have it all. Over night shipping is available in most case, or so these emails proclaim.

In some instances this pharmacy spam originates from unscrupulous individuals who have em o intention of delivering the drugs, realizing that very few people, if any, will complain about the non delivery of an illegal drug through the mail.
In other cases the drugs are sent without em prescription from countries where that pessoal drug may legally be sold without caso prescription, or at least the laws are more relaxed. Valium, for example, is sold over-the-counter in Taiwan.

According to Crawford (2004) "Consumers who purchase drugs disponível thinking that they are they are getting the same drugs as they would from their local brick-and-mortar pharmacy are being misled, and as e result are putting their health, and eventually their lives at risk" Crawford cites examples of Rede pharmacies supplying drugs that were under strength, contaminated and mislabeled (Crawford 2004).

According to Won (2005) Drug-industry executives think the Web and mail-order operations will be the biggest source of counterfeit drugs over the next five years, according to em report released today by Ernst & Young. According to James G Dickinson (2005):
The federalista government in July shut down an alleged illegal Web pharmacy for selling counterfeit drugs and issued na direção de warning em rede other counterfeits found to have been sold in Mexican border pharmacies to individual patients from the U.S. The Rede pharmacy had sold more than $7 million in counterfeit Viagra and other prescription drugs over the past five years, according to the San Diego Union-Tribune. The San Diego-based operation required individuals to complete no sentido de $35 "doctor consultation" survey before receiving the prescriptions, but the survey was never shown to para health professional to evaluate whether se safety risk existed, the paper says (Dickson, 2005).

In se separate action, the FDA warned Americans about counterfeit versions of Merck's cholesterol drug Zocor and generic Carisoprodol - used for treating musculoskeletal conditions - that had been imported from Mexico by individual Americans (FDA, 2005).
Over the last year patients suffering from pain, and other conditions that they are reluctant to see a doctor face-to-face, have had the option of consulting ao preço de doctor disponível. The ability to consult with por doctor conectado, and then to receive drugs as essa result has come under much controversy.

This has for the most part been as lá result of not adequately screening patient's records, or ordering from unregulated overseas pharmacies.
The Net - e new way of marketing
Not all Rede mundial de computadores pharmacies are illegitimate, however, and there are many pharmacies that provide the consumer with com destino a legitimate prescription by overnight service. My last prescription came by mail. The whole transaction was completed over the Rede.

It was com destino a prescription that my doctor had given to me personally, however. As discussed, what constitutes no sentido de doctor patient relationship is at the crux of the em rede pharmacy debate. This of course has implications as to what constitutes em legitimate prescription. What constitutes em legitimate prescription is autor hotly debated topic.

The Future
As noted, being able to consult em doctor over the phone, and then have one's prescription filled by an Internet pharmacy is convenient for many people. As the American population ages, more and more people will have trouble getting to the doctors office, not to mention driving to the pharmacy.

Clearly safeguards are needed if relativo a comunicação em rede-medicine is to raise the quality of medical care available to Americans. The na Internet pharmaceutical industry has taken ao preço de number of steps to ensure that consumers are protected against unscrupulous em rede pharmacy operators including the certification of em linha pharmacies.

According to Henkel (2000) "One way consumers can ensure the quality of an disponível pharmacy is to look for the Verified Rede Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) seal." According to Henkel (2000) any sítio da Internet bearing this seal has gone through para rigorous series of quality checks which are part of the Verified Net Pharmacy Practice Sites program.

Unfortunately as Henkel (2000) notes, "Because VIPPS certification is fairly new and voluntary, only ao preço de few sites have been certified so far." Recognizing the problem of 'rouge' pharmacies, SquareTrade, has also implemented ao preço de program to protect consumers from 'rouge' pharmacies.
According to SquareTrade, "The Licensed Pharmacy program verifies that your business is e pharmacy in good standing. Verified pharmacies can display the Licensed Pharmacy Seal em linha their websites - distinguishing themselves from unverified and rogue pharmacies."

If these safe guards are not put in place, and legislation is enacted that makes it illegal to obtain essa prescription from an online pharmacy based em linha an on consult, the black market for drugs will continue to thrive. Customs by its own admission only catches approximately 2% of all illicit prescription drugs that enter the US.

Negating the fact that through technology, one could enter into em doctor patient relationship that may be affordable. Security, as some have suggested could be accomplished through the use of video cameras and biometric scanners which would cut down online the number of fraudulent prescriptions written. Measures like these would put the convenience of using an na Internet pharmacy out of the reach of those without the technology.

One could also not prevent consumers from using off shore em linha pharmacies. While the FDA is presently trying very hard to get the Canadian government to enact legislation that would prohibit the export of drugs from Canada by mail it appears that the profit that results from the sale of drugs is causing the legislation to stall.
As one Canadian pharmacy owner noted, however "We will just move to the UK."

Ironically, the Canadian's are offering to crack down, not because of any concerns relating to the sale of drugs conectado, but because Canada controls drug prices, making them far cheaper than the same drug in the US. The Canadian authorities are planning na Internet cracking down "arguing that the system was created to help Canadians, not Americans." The drug industry itself has gone so far as to black list Canadian pharmacies that sell to American customers over the Net.

With all the paranoia relating to terrorism there is e concern that any drug coming in from another country may be contaminated. There are no instances acessível record of autor consumer having received ao preço de contaminated drug from Canada (Matthews, 2003).
Even more ironically with all the talk about the dangers of drugs purchased from overseas, some legitimate companies are now being forced to buy from other than US sources because they have been black listed by US drug manufactures (Matthews, 2003). Mathews (2003) goes on-line to illustrate this by pointing out that "Canadian suppliers, in privado, that have been blacklisted, are now turning to sources in Europe." Mathews (2003) notes that while for the most part these European sources are legitimate and make lá high quality drug.

In some cases, however Mathews et al. (2003) note that the pharmacies are having to go 'farther a field' to find product.
Conclusion
While there need for controls to be put in place to regulate the practice of both medicine acessível and Rede pharmacies, we also need to acknowledge that science and technology has furthered the practice of medicine, and that the Rede de computadores interligados will further it yet.

The Net has the potential of expanding medical care to those that may not routinely seek it, or are too infirm to travel to the doctor's office. While the present trend appears to be to make it illegal for ao preço de doctor to prescribe drugs without seeing the patient face-to-face there is also no sentido de move to establish rules and regulations that ensure that patients receive quality care over the Internet.

Unfortunately medicine and politics have become so intertwined and doctors have inadvertently become unwilling agents in the war against drugs.
One can't turn back the clock though, and according to Larkin (1999) "At no sentido de July 30 US Department of Commerce hearing em linha the benefits and risks of 'drugstores em conexão the net', the question was examined." The main issue was how to shutdown the conectado pharmacies run by unscrupulous individuals, while still fostering the legitimate na Internet pharmacy business in order to both promote commerce and still protect the consumer (Larkin, 1999).

According to Larkin (1999) "What's new here is not the practice of pharmacy, but the way we communicate with and inform customers."
At em direção a January 26th 2004 FDCH Congressional Testimony Jeff Kimmell who is vice President and Chief Pharmacy Officer at drugstore.com, inc. commented, "There is little doubt that as consumers increasingly bear the burden of paying for prescription drugs, they will turn to the Rede for cost- effective alternatives." As discussed, however, measures need to be taken to ensure that consumers don't receive counterfeit, tainted or expired drugs.

For more up-to-date information on-line doctors that practice telemedicine, pending legislation, and more visit: website
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